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Tagalog Lite Appendix M - English Grammar Term Reference
TermDefinition and ExamplesadjectiveA word that describes a noun. Examples: green, good, fast.adverbA word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb or group of words. Examples: happily, inside, now.adverbial clauseA group of words that function as an adverb. Examples: right now, in total silence, any time.affixA group of letters that combine with the root to form a word. See prefix, suffix, infix and circumfix.aspectA verb form that expresses state of completion of a verb. See completed, uncompleted and contemplated aspects.circumfixA prefix and suffix that combine with a root to form a word. Example: enlighten (circumfix en-en combined with root light).clauseA clause contains a subject and a verb. Sentences can be made of combinations of clauses and phrases. An examples of a one clause sentence is Mary is the president. In Before I went home, I ate a banana there are 2 clauses; (1) before I went home and (2) I ate a banana. common nounAny noun that is not a proper noun. Examples: dog, house, car.comparativeAdjective used to compare two objects. Examples: taller, more tired, worse.completed aspectA verb form that expresses a completed action. For example, "eaten" in "I have eaten/I had eaten/I will have eaten".conjugationChanging the form of a verb. For example, the verb "to be" can be conjugated to "is", "am", "are", etc.conjunctionA word that joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Examples: or, but, and.contemplated aspectA verb form that expresses an action that has not yet started. Examples: will go, will play, will eat.contracted formA shortened form (of a word). Examples: can't, don't, you've.demonstrative pronounA pronoun that points to a specific object. Examples – this, that, it.direct objectA noun or pronoun that is directly acted upon by a verb. Examples: boy in ask the boy, her in follow her, cat in feed the cat.gerundThe "ing" form of a verb, used as a noun. Examples: I like eating. He is not good at cooking.imperativeA sentence that is used to make a command or give instruction. Examples: Pass the butter. Be there by 3. Go home!indirect objectA noun or pronoun that is a recipient of an action. Example: me in Joe gave me a bike.infinitiveA verb form made by adding "to" to the base form of the verb. Examples: to eat, to sleep, to dream.infixA group of letters that are inserted into a root to form a word. English has not true infixes, but occasionally you may see words like fan-flaming-tastic (infix: flaming).intensifierAdverb used to add emphasis. Examples: really, very, too.interrogativeA word or phrase used to indicate a question. Examples: how?, isn’t it?, where?intransitive verbA verb that cannot take an object. Examples: happen, talk, panic.nounA word used for a person, place or thing. See common and proper nouns.objectA noun or pronoun that is acted upon by a verb. See direct object and indirect object.personal pronounA word that replaces a person in a sentence. Examples – he, she, they.phrasePhrases are groups of two or more words. They may act as, and be substituted for, a specific kind of word in a sentence. For example, a really ripe banana is a noun phrase. It can be substituted for the noun banana in I ate a banana to form the sentence I ate a really ripe banana. pluralA form used to denote more than one noun. Example – dogs is the plural form of dog.predicateWhat remains in a clause if you remove the subject. Example – in Mary is the president, Mary is the subject and is the president is the predicate.prefixA group of letters that are added to the beginning of a root to form a word. Example: disappear (prefix dis- added to the beginning root appear) prepositionA word or phrase used before a noun or pronoun to indicate direction, time, place, location, etc. Examples: in, at, to.present participleThe "ing" form of a verb, used as a verb. Examples: I am eating. They are cooking in the kitchen.pronounA word that replaces a noun in a sentence. See personal pronoun, demonstrative pronoun.proper nounThe name of a person or place. Examples: Mary, Manila, Joe. reflexive phraseA phrase in which the subject is the same as the object. Examples: She bathed herself. He ate his own cooking.relative pronounA pronoun which is used to connect a noun to a relative clause. Examples: "that" in "the car that I bought"; "who" in "the girl who is beautiful".subjectThe person/thing that is doing or being something in a clause. Example – in Mary is the President, Mary is the subject.suffixA group of letters that are added to the end of a root to form a word. Example: fellowship (suffix -ship added to the end of root fellow) superlativeAdjective used to describe an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a quality. Examples: tallest, most tired, worst.tag questionA short interrogative structure tagged onto a sentence that makes it into a question. Examples: isn’t it?, right?, don’t you?transitive verbA verb that can take an object. For example, in "I ate a pie", the verb "ate" is transitive because it can take the object "pie".uncompleted aspectA verb form that expresses an action that has stated, but has not yet been completed. Examples: going, plays, eating.verbA word that describes an action, state or occurrence. Examples: run, be, happen.Table 13: English Grammar Terms
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