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Tagalog Lite Lesson 16 - Mag- verbs Imperative, Nga and Adj + Infinitive
to look for (AF(DO))
to play (AF(O))
to cook (AF(O))
enclitic particle that softens or enlivens
enclitic particle that softens, contrasts or enlivens
*This word is in this lesson for demonstration only. It will be covered in a later lesson.
After putting off using the infinitive for two lessons, we are going to use it in two different ways: the imperative, which uses the infinitive and (optionally) the particle nga, and adj + infinitive.
The imperative is used to command or instruct, and it is formed by using the infinitive plus a personal pronoun.
Notes: The Imperative Sentence is just a Standard Sentence where the verb takes infinitive. For AF, the actor is either ka, kayo or tayo, and the object takes ng form. All variants are possible, unless otherwise stated.
Ex: Maghanap ka ng tubig!
= (you) Look for water!
Ex: Maglaro kayo ng basketbol.
= (you pl.) Play basketball.
Ex: Magluto tayo dun.
= Let’s (incl.) cook over there.
Although we do not normally say the “you” in English, notice that in Tagalog the personal pronoun is used. Personal pronouns used with the imperative are ka, kayo or tayo for mag- verbs since the actor takes ang form.
Enclitic Particle Nga
Adding nga or naman can soften the phrase. They are enclitic particles, so let’s update the order of enclitic particles:
Note: Enclitic particles appear in a fixed order in the cluster. You have learned five so far, and they appear in this order: na, nga, naman, po, ba.
Ex: Maghanap ka nga ng tubig!
= (you) Look for water! (soft)
Ex: Maglaro naman kayo ng basketbol.
= (you pl.) Play basketball. (soft)
Ex: Magluto nga po tayo dun.
= Let’s (incl.) cook over there. (soft)(resp.)
In this usage, nga is a bit more common than naman, so we will only use nga in this way from now on. Naman will be used in other ways, which will be discussed in another lesson.
Short Form Imperative
There is a short form version of the imperative, which only requires the root of the verb:
Ex: Hanap ka!
= (you) Search!
Ex: Laro kayo!
= (you pl.) Play!
Ex: Luto tayo!
= Let’s cook!
You will definitely hear this in the wild, but it is very informal and can be somewhat harsh, so we will not use it in the sample sentences.
Adj + linker + Infinitive
Here is another structure that uses the infinitive:
Adj (+ linker) + Verb + object + X (Tag.) = It is adj to verb (Eng.)
Note: The verb takes infinitive. Use the linker if it -ng type, but omit it if it is na.
Although the linker is optional here, native speakers will normally use it if can be an -ng type modification, but omit it where it would be na, so that is what we do in this book.
Ex: Magandang magsabi ng totoo.
= It is good to tell the truth. Maganda takes an -ng type modification.
Ex: Masarap magbisikleta.
= It is satisfying to bicycle. Masarap would need the plain na linker, so it is dropped here.
Ex: Magandang mag-aral nang alas-sais ng umaga.
= It is good to study at 6am.
These are simple statements of facts, with no actors. Of the adjectives you have learned so far, only maganda and masarap work in this construction. In the wild, let English be your guide. For example, pagod maglaro ng basketbol does not work because it means “it is tired to play basketball”. You can say “it is tiring to play basketball” or “I am too tired to play basketball” instead, but these require different structures in Tagalog.
Let’s cook adobo. (soft)
Magluto nga tayo ng adobo.
It is satisfying to play basketball at your (pl.) place.
Masarap maglaro ng basketbol sa inyo.
Look for shoes. (soft)(resp.)
Maghanap nga po kayo ng sapatos.
It is good to plant trees.
Magandang magtanim ng puno.
Tell me a date. (soft)
Magsabi ka nga ng petsa sa akin.
Look for bicycles. Do you have a bicycle?
Maghanap ka ng bisikleta. May bisikleta ka?
Let’s play at half past three! Don’t you want to?
Maglaro tayo nang alas-tres y medya! Ayaw mo ba?
(you pl.) Cook ten chickens. (soft)
Magluto nga kayo ng sampung manok.
Joaquin and Joshua! Look for six men.
Joaquin at Joshua! Maghanap kayo ng anim na lalaki.
It is good to give cheap bicycles to kids.
Magandang magbigay ng murang bisikleta sa bata.
Drills - Lesson 16
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