Write & CorrectEnglish
Tagalog Lite Lesson 60 - After and Then; Pagka, Tapos and Pagkatapos
adverb prefix that adds the nuance “after”
This lesson covers some common ways to say “after” and “then” in Tagalog. There is some overlap between pagka-, tapos and pagkatapos, so we will cover them together in this lesson.
The prefix pagka- can be used to create an adverb of time with the nuance “after”. Be careful not to confuse this with pag + ka, which you used to make gerunds for certain verb roots.
pagka + root + noun (Tag.) = after noun verbed (Eng.)
Notes: These are adverbs of time; noun takes ng form.
Ex: Pagkakain nila, ininom nila ang tubig.
= After they ate, they drank the water.
Ex: Umuwi si Joshua pagkamatay ng aso niya.
= Joshua went home after his dog died.
Ex: Pagkaaral ni Maria, nagbisikleta siya papunta sa bahay ni Joe.
= After Maria studied, she bicycled to Joe’s house.
Tapos is an adverb of time that roughly means “then”. It can go in front of the sentence, or join two phrases.
Ex: Tapos, nagmaneho ako papunta sa Maynila.
= Then, I drove to Manila.
Ex: Nag-aral siya, tapos kumain sa amin.
= She studied, then ate at our (excl.) place.
= And then? So...?
But tapós na is an adjective that means “after” or “finished”. Notice that the stress is different from tapos. With a clause:
Tapos + na + linker + clause. (Tag.) = Actor is finished clausing. (Eng.)
Note: The verb takes infinitive form.
Ex: Tapos na siyang magluto.
= She finished cooking.
Ex: Tapos nang magluto si Maria.
= Maria finished cooking.
Ex: Tapos na niyang gawin yun.
= He is finished doing that.
With a noun phrase:
Tapos + na + name/pp + noun phrase. (Tag.) = Name/pp is finished phrasing. (Eng.)
Note: To focus on the actor, name/pp takes ang form, and noun phrase takes sa form. To focus on the noun phrase, name/pp takes ng form, and noun phrase takes ang form.
Ex: Tapos na ako sa halo-halo.
= I completed the halo-halo. Focus is on name/pp.
Ex: Tapos na ni Maria ang halo-halo.
= Maria completed the halo-halo. Focus on phrase.
Ex: Tapos na ang bahay nila.
= Their house is finished. There is no name/pp.
Pagkatapos is just the pagka prefix shown above used with the tapos root to form an adverb of time which roughly means “after”. It can be used before a verb:
pagkatapos + linker + verb (Tag.) = after verbing (Eng.)
Notes: Verb takes infinitive form, actor takes ng form. Use the linker if it is -ng type, but omit it if it is na.
Similar to the adj + infinitive and pseudo verb structures, although the linker is optional here, native speakers will normally use it if can be an -ng type modification, but omit it where it would be na, so that is what we do in this book.
Ex: Pagkatapos mong manalo, umalis ako.
= After you won, I left.
Ex: Pagkatapos kumain ni Maria, umuwi siya.
= After Maria ate, she went home.
Ex: Maglalaro tayo pagkatapos kumain.
= We (incl.) will play after eating.
Notice that the infinitive is used for “eating” here, not a pag- noun.
Ex: Pagkatapos na maging guro, ibinili ni Joshua ng sasakyan ang asawa niya.
= After becoming a teacher, Joshua bought a car for his wife.
It can also be used before an event:
pagkatapos + event (Tag.) = after the event (Eng.)
Note: Event takes ng form.
Ex: Pagkatapos ng pagkain, natulog kami.
= After the food, we (excl.) slept.
Ex: Mas maganda ang mga puno pagkatapos ng ulan.
= The trees are more beautiful after the rain.
Ex: Pagkatapos ng gabi, nasa bahay si Jessica.
= After the night, Jessica was at home.
Pagkatapos can also mean “then”:
Ex: Nag-aral siya at kumain sa amin pagkatapos.
= She studied, and ate at our (excl.) place then.
But this is less common than using tapos, so we will not use it from now on.
Why won't she learn English, then go to Seattle?
Bakit hindi siya matututo ng Ingles, tapos pupunta sa Seattle?
After one hour, Joshua said, "Whose place is she at?" (pagkatapos)
Pagkatapos ng isang oras, sabi ni Joshua, “Nakanino siya?”
I am finished asking the questions.
Tapos ko na tanungin ang mga tanong.
After Analyn's child died, teaching became difficult. (pagka-)
Pagkamatay ng anak ni Analyn, naging mahirap ang pagtuturo.
She took a walk for many hours, then wound up here, so how is she?
Namasyal siya nang maraming oras, tapos napunta dito, kaya kumusta siya?
Really? After searching for whose cat? (pagkatapos)
Talaga? Pagkatapos hanapin ang kaninong pusa?
They are finished with us(incl.), right? How hot is it outside now?
Tapos na sila sa atin, di ba? Gaano kainit sa labas ngayon?
After we studied, the teacher had a bus go to the store. (pagka-)
Pagkaaral namin, nagpapunta ng bus sa tindahan ang guro.
How did you cook the chicken, then eat it so fast?
Paano mo niluto ang manok, tapos kinain ito nang ganun kabilis?
After Joe wins some money, he will have David build a house. (pagkatapos)
Pagkatapos manalo ni Joe ng pera, papagawain niya si David ng bahay.
Drills - Lesson 60
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