Write & CorrectEnglish
The history of humanity is marked by several infectious diseases that emerged over time. For instance, in the last century, there were different dangerous pandemics in the years 1918, 1957, 1968, 2009, and 2019. As this is a problem of public health, the countries should stimulate studies on the subject. Therefore, the major challenge for researchers is to develop solutions that protect humans, including viruses that might emerge in the future.
Among the first four pandemics, it is essential to bring up that 1918 pandemics was the most devasting infectious disease since it caused around 75 million deaths worldwide. The viruses involved in the subsequent years, though less potent, were influenza-derived. Thus, sum up to the fact that many people were partially immune, the lower infection resulted from the improvements in public health and the development of vaccines that act against these viruses. In 2019, coronavirus emerged and exposed the major drawback of vaccines against viruses: it takes several years to make a specific vaccine for each variation of the virus.
In this sense, scientists are working to develop 'universal' or RNA-based vaccines to meet this global health challenge. In the first case, the objective is to generate protection for all viruses of the same family, minimizing production time. On the other hand, the mRNA is used to accelerate the protection by using the own organism to stimulate the immune system; it was made in just two years because of the coronavirus pandemic and opens new possibilities in the future.