Write & CorrectEnglish
Tagalog Lite Lesson 23 - Um-verbs; Infinitive & Completed
to eat; ate (AF(O))
to become big/grow up; became big/grew up (AF(I))
to climb; climbed (AF(O))
to ride; rode (AF(O))
to go; went (AF(D))
to bring something upstairs
*This verb is used for demonstration only; no need to memorize.
-Um- verbs are another member of the Big Six. They are AF, so we will do a comparison with mag- verbs. The infinitive and completed aspect are covered in this lesson, and the remaining aspects in the next.
Traits of -um- verbs
AF, with possible variants of AF(D), AF(DO), AF(I) and AF(O).
Some are used for natural actions.
Some are used to denote becoming something.
Ex: kain = food => kumain = to eat; an example of a natural action
Ex: laki = big => lumakí = to get big; an example of becoming something
Infinitive and Completed Aspects
For -um- verbs only, the infinitive is the same as completed aspect. This is why kumain can mean either “to eat” or “ate” (see vocabulary list). Form the infinitive/completed aspect by putting -um- before the first vowel in the root:
Ex: akyat => umakyát
Ex: sakay => sumakáy
Ex: punta => pumuntá
Comparing Mag- and -Um- verbs.
Many roots have both mag and um verbs. Their meanings are sometimes very different:
Ex: mag-akyat = to bring something upstairs
Ex: umakyat = to climb
But sometimes very similar:
Ex: magpunta = to go
Ex: pumunta = to go
So, you may wonder why there are two AF verbs with the same root. In the dictionary, their second and third definitions are probably not the same. With time and exposure, you will learn which context requires which verb.
These are AF verbs, so as a reminder:
Table 3: The Three Form
Patterns for Standard Sentences
Ex: Umakyat si Maria ng puno.
= Maria climbed a tree.
Ex: Sumakay kami ng bus.
= We (excl.) rode a bus.
Ex: Pumunta kayo sa bahay ni Joshua.
= (you pl.) Go to Joshua’s house or (you pl.) went to Joshua’s house.
Verbs that take Ng and Sa
There are quite a few -um- verbs that seem to take objects in both ng and sa forms. While both forms are often acceptable, there may be a subtle difference in meaning:
Ex: Umakyat siya ng puno.
= She climbed a tree.
Ex: Umakyat siya sa puno.
= She climbed on the tree.
Ex: Sumakay si Joe ng bus.
= Joe rode a bus.
Ex: Sumakay si Joe sa bus.
= Joe rode on the bus.
For these verbs, it is best to assume that sa is marking a location, rather than an object.
Yes. It is satisfying to eat chicken.
Oo. Masarap kumain ng manok.
Their child also grew up in Luzon.
Lumaki rin ang anak nila sa Luzon.
(you pl.) Just climb on that building for a half hour.
Umakyat lang kayo sa gusaling yun nang kalahating oras.
In contrast, we (excl.) did not ride a bus to Manila at night.
Hindi naman kami sumakay ng bus papunta sa Maynila nung gabi.
Each woman went to the school in the year 2006.
Pumunta ang bawat babae sa eskwelahan nung taong dalawang libo't anim.
(you pl.) Eat some delicious chocolate on Friday
Kumain kayo ng masarap na tsokolate sa Biyernes.
Jessica and Mark grew up in the Philippines, right?
Lumaki sina Jessica at Mark sa Pilipinas, no?
Let's climb a tree now. There is a light. (meron)
Umakyat tayo ng puno ngayon. Merong ilaw.
Yes. You ride a car for them too. (soft)(resp.)
Opo. Sumakay nga rin po kayo ng sasakyan para sa kanila.
David went to the street yesterday at half past four.
Pumunta si David sa kalsada kahapon nang alas kuwatro y medya.
Drills - Lesson 23
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