1. Sialkot, located in Pakistan, is the world’s largest producer of handsewn footballs. Local factories in the region produce 40-60 million footballs a year, which is roughly 50-70% of the world’s total production. The football manufacturing industry now consists of more than 200 factories.
2. Pakistan is the world’s first Islamic country to attain nuclear power.
3. Pakistan has the highest paved international road – The Karakoram Highway (KKH).
4. Pakistan has the largest canal-based irrigation system in the world.
5. Pakistan has the world’s largest ambulance network. Pakistan’s Edhi Foundation, which is also listed in the Guinness Book of World Records, operates the network.
6. The highest batting partnership formed by two players playing in their first Test matches in the sport of Cricket is 249 runs by Khalid Ibadulla (b. 20 December 1935) and Abdul Kadir (b. 1944, d. 2002) for Pakistan against Australia in Karachi, Pakistan, in the match played 24-29 October 1964. Wasim Akram, a former Pakistani fast bowler is the first to take 400 wickets in both Tests and ODIs (second being Muttiah Muralitharan).
7. Pakistan’s estimated population was 207,774,520 in August 2017, making it the world’s sixth-most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Nigeria.
8. The name Pakistan means ‘land of the pure’ in Persian and Urdu.
9. Just two people have won the Nobel Prize from Pakistan. Malala Yousafzai for Peace in 2014 and Abdus Salam for Physics in 1979.
The Sindhi language has an extremely intriguing history closely intertwined with the era of British colonial rule in India. The Sindhi Diaspora that occurred as a consequence of the partition of British India had significant effects for both India and neighboring Pakistan, and they are still evident today.
Sindhi’s history dates back to long before colonial rule, however, as the roots of the Sindhi language can be traced as far back as 1500 BC. That gives Sindhi a rich cultural, literary and historical tradition well worth exploring.
Classification of the Sindhi Language
The Sindhi language is classified as a member of the Indo-Aryan linguistic group, part of the Indo-European family of languages. Languages of the Indo-Aryan family can be classified in three major stages of development: Old Indo-Aryan, or Sanskrit; Middle Indo-Aryan, consisting of Prakrit and Apabhramsha stages; and New Indo-Aryan, which dates from circa the 10th century CE.
Early History of the Sindhi Language
The roots of the Sindhi language can be traced back to the Old Indo-Aryan dialect known as primary Prakrit, which is believed to have been spoken in the region of modern-day Sindh around 1500 to 1200 BC – or even earlier.
Sindhi is believed to have developed specifically from the Virachada dialect of the Prakrit language. Hints of this dialect can be spied in certain passages of hymns found in the Rigveda.
Written Sindhi Language
The first evidence of written Sindhi can be traced back to circa the 8th century CE in a Sindhi language version of the Mahabharata. The Sindhi language is written primarily in two scripts: Arabic-Sindhi and Devanagari-Sindhi. Although the Arabic-Sindhi and Devanagari-Sindhi are the most popular, other scripts also can be used to write the Sindhi language, including Brahmi, the Gurmukhi alphabet, and an indigenous script simply known as Sindhi.
The Arabic-Sindhi script was developed by the British government in 1852 and consists of a modified Arabic alphabet. The Devanagari-Sindhi script uses an adapted Devanagari script with four extra letters to accommodate certain Sindhi language sounds. This second script has proved immensely valuable in efforts to preserve the Sindhi literary and cultural heritage.
Sindhi in India
Under British colonial rule in India, the area then known as “British India” was significantly larger than the India we know today, comprising of areas of modern-day India and Pakistan. With the partition of British India in 1947, many Sindhi language speakers in Pakistan fled to India.
The effects of this migration are still evident, as the Sindhi language in India is found primarily in the Kachchh district of Gujarat, an area bordering the modern Pakistani Sindh province where many Pakistani Sindhi language speakers fled after the partition. Today the Sindhi language is officially recognized by the constitution of India.
Sindhi in Pakistan
With the partition of British India in 1947, Pakistan became an independent nation, and the country’s Sindh province was formally established. Prior to the partition, the majority of educated Sindhi in the area practiced Hinduism. Consequently, when partition occurred, many Sindhi language speakers fled Pakistan and migrated to India. This loss of Sindhi population in Pakistan was complemented by the entrance of a great number of Urdu-speaking refugees in the young Sindh province. As a result, Sindhi language, culture and identity in Pakistan suffered significantly and the Sindhi language population of Sindh began to fear that their language and culture would be drowned out by Urdu influences.
Problems in the province soon arose due to the fact that Sindhi efforts to promote and preserve Sindhi literary and cultural traditions were often seen as anti-Urdu actions. The escalating tensions peaked in the language riots of 1972, which resulted in the Pakistani government’s granting special status to the Sindhi language. Although Urdu and English are still the official national languages of Pakistan, Sindhi is the official regional language of the country’s Sindh province.
Development of Sindhi Language Literature
Although the first evidence of written Sindhi dates as far back as the 8th century, it was not until around the 15th century that a literary Sindhi language emerged. The Medieval period of Sindhi devotional literature, dating from circa 1500 to 1843, produced a great deal of lyrical Sufi poetry still popular today. After 1843, modern Sindhi language literature exploded, covering an increased range of topics and themes.
After the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, Sindhi language literature of the two countries began to diverge significantly; Sindhi authors from Pakistan turned to Persian and Arabic sources for inspiration while Indian Sindhi language writers were more heavily influenced by Hindi literatures.
Preserving Sindhi Literary Traditions
Today Sindhi has developed to become one of the most important literary languages from the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, although its level of global prominence has been eclipsed by that of Urdu in recent years.
The Sindhi language is especially noted for its extremely rich body of folk literature, which dates as far back as the language itself.
In 1955, the Sindhi Adabi Board was established in the interest of promoting and preserving the Sindhi language. The organization undertook the immense project of collecting old Sindhi literary traditions – many of them oral traditions that were later transcribed – and publishing them in a series of 40 volumes.
Sindhi Language Today
Today the Sindhi language is spoken by an estimated 25 million people around the world, most of them found in the countries of Pakistan and India. Additional communities of Sindhi language speakers can be found in the US, UK, Oman, Singapore, and the Philippines.
The Punjabi language, also spelled Panjabi, boasts a rich literary history that is still celebrated by the Punjabi-language community today.
Traditional oral poetry and Punjabi folklore has been passed down and transcribed for generations and remains a popular part of Punjabi folk culture. This rich cultural history, combined with the Punjab territory’s past of British colonialism, makes the development of the language an intriguing point of study.
Classification and Early History of the Punjabi Language
Punjabi is classified as a member of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family of languages. All languages within the Indo-Aryan family developed in three major stages: Old Indo-Aryan or Sanskrit; Middle Indo-Aryan, consisting of Prakrit and Apabhramsha stages; and New Indo-Aryan, which dates from circa the 10th century CE.
The Punjabi language is a descendent of the Sauraseni Prakrit, a language of medieval northern India. It believed to have developed as a distinct language from the Shauraseni Apabhramsha language around the 11th century. Other early influences on Punjabi include Indo-Aryan and pre-Indo-Aryan languages.
Characteristics of the Punjabi Language
Modern Punjabi is a very tonal language, making use of various tones to differentiate words that would otherwise be identical. Three primary tones can be identified: high-rising-falling, mid-rising-falling, and low rising.
By using these tones properly, Punjabi language speakers are able to differentiate between words that otherwise appear to be the exact same as one another. Needless to say, for those who attempt to learn Punjabi as a second language, grasping the importance of and mastering the different tones can be extremely challenging.
Written Punjabi Language
The Punjabi language is written in a variety of scripts. The two most common are the Perso-Arabic script and a script based on the Gurmukhi alphabet. Developed by a Sikh, Guru Angad, the Gurmukhi alphabet was initially developed for use in writing scriptures during the 16th century.
Less commonly, Punjabi is also written using the Devanagari script.
History of the Punjab Territory
Today the Punjabi language is found primarily in the Punjab State of India and Punjab Province of Pakistan. These two areas were formerly united as part of the Punjab Territory under British colonial rule in India. “British India” was much larger than the country we know as India today and included present-day India as well as areas of modern Pakistan.
With the partition of British India in 1947, the nation of Pakistan was formed distinct from India, and the formerly united British Punjab Territory was divided between the two countries. Today, more than 100 million Punjab speakers can be found in the area that once formed Punjab territory. Interestingly, the name Punjab literally translates into “five waters” in the Persian language and is thought to refer to the five major rivers found in the formerly-united Punjab territory.
Punjabi Language in India
Punjabi is an officially recognized language in India’s constitution; however, as with most of India’s linguistic groups, Punjabi’s distribution in the country is very regional. The majority of Punjab language speakers are found in the Punjab state, formerly part of British India’s Punjab Territory, where Punjabi serves as the official state language. Hindi is also widely spoken in the Punjab state.
The Punjab state is home to a large Sikh population, as well as a number of holy Sikh shrines and temples. For this reason, Sikhism and the Punjabi language are often seen as having an intertwined identity in India.
Punjabi Language in Pakistan
Pakistan is a linguistically diverse country, and Punjabi is only one of many languages that can be found in the country. As in India, Punjab language speakers in Pakistan tend to be found primarily in the country’s Punjab Province, formerly part of British India’s Punjab Territory. The official national languages of Pakistan are English and Urdu, a form of Farsi. Even in the Punjab state, Urdu is more prominently used than Punjab for formal purposes.
Because Urdu is taught in Punjab schools and every Punjabi reads and writes the language, the Punjabi language is used predominantly in the spoken form. In the late 20th century, a movement calling for an increased use of Punjabi in Pakistan led to the publishing of many Punjabi language texts using the Urdu script.
Modern Punjabi Language and Dialects
Two main varieties of the Punjab language exist: western, also known as Lahnda, and eastern, also known as Gurmukhi. There are an estimated 88 million native Punjabi-language speakers around the world today, the majority of them located in India and Pakistan. Additional Punjab language communities can be found around the world, from the United States to South Africa.
Punjabi Language Literature
The earliest known examples of a Punjabi literary language date as far back as the 9th century CE and consist primarily of spiritual and religious texts, many of them written by Sufi mystics. Although the language in these early texts is closer to Shauraseni Apabramsha, the vocabulary shows early development of colloquial Punjabi forms.
The Punjabi language is known for its long history of folk literature, which is rich in traditional poetry. In fact, much of it is oral poetry that has been transcribed. From the late 17th to mid-18th centuries, the Punjabi language gave birth to a number of well-known poets who wrote on all manner of topics, from tragic love stories to the spiritual or historical. One of the best-known Punjabi language writers from this time is the poet Baba Bulleh Shah, who wrote in the Sufi tradition.
Today, Punjabi language literature has gained global recognition, especially Punjabi poetry, which is noted for its meaningful and beautiful verse. The works of a number of Punjabi language poets have been translated into other languages and are read around the world.
(Note - This article was published on the ohfact.com)
Urdu is one of the most sophisticated languages. It defines beauty and grace and is the language of poets, commonly called shayars in Urdu. Urdu is currently the official language of Pakistan and an identity symbol of Indian Muslims. There are some beautiful facts about Urdu that you must know. Take a look!
1. Where Is It Used?
Urdu is widely spoken in Pakistan, being its official language, parts of India and in many parts of South Asia. Urdu is distinguished slightly from Hindi in terms of its script and vocabulary and is thus one of the official languages of India. Urdu is also spoken in the UK by Muslims from Pakistan and Northern India and is quite popular among the Middle East countries.
2. Language Of Beauty And Grace
Urdu is one such beautiful language that has a way of saying things that mark the courteous from the unlearned and the noble from the ordinary. Literature and poetry are depicted in Urdu so gracefully that the world knows of it. It is known to touch the soul the way it imparts hidden meanings in a prose or poetry like no other language can.
3. Importance In Academic Discipline
An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Urdu can play a vital part if you are interested in any academic discipline that includes the study of South Asia — including law, medicine, business, agriculture, life sciences, humanities, and social sciences as it is considered a significant language for it.
4. Urdu And The Fire Bible
Urdu is a key language in reaching Pakistan and many other Middle Eastern countries. Another interesting fact about Urdu language is that the Pastors and mature believers who want to learn God’s Word in depth will be thrilled to have the Pentecostal study notes, maps, and commentary which have made the Fire Bible an important tool in equipping leadership and building the body of Christ in that part of the world. Thus having Fire Bibles in the Urdu language is a key win the Middle East to Christ.
5. English Words That Come From Urdu
English is said to have been derived from a lot of languages. Here are some English words of Urdu origin:
Cummerbund- “waist binding”,
Khaki- dusty, grey,
Typhoon- Toofan or storm and some others.
6. Languages Similar To Urdu
Most South Asian languages have a lot in common and they seem to be related in one or the other way. Urdu is related to most of the languages of India and northern South Asia, all of them having similar grammatical structures and a certain common vocabulary.
The Punjabi language is very similar to Urdu. Written Punjabi can be understood by speakers of Urdu, with a little difficulty, but spoken Punjabi has a different phonology and cannot be easily understood by Urdu speakers.
The closest linked language to Urdu is Hindi. Linguists think of Hindi and Urdu as the same language, the difference being that Hindi is written in Devanagari and draws vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu is written in Arabic script and draws on Persian.
As technology advanced and civilizations were allowed to record and externalize information, the art of memory lost its power. Many people complain that they have bad memory, forgetting that this amazing feature of the human brain can be trained. And the training is critical for language learners who need to memorize plenty of information regarding the grammar, syntax, or vocabulary of the language they’re learning.
Here are 5 smart memory improvement tips to help you in learning a new language!
1. Take advantage of mnemonics
The word “mnemonics” derives from Mnemosyne, the Greek goddess of memory. A mnemonic is basically any device that helps to memorize a piece of information – for example, a verse or a formula.
Memory isn’t about repeating a fact until it’s rammed into your brain. It relies on imagination.
Learning and memory are both creative processes. When memorizing new pieces of information, you form connections between disparate acts to create something new. Make sure that the image you create stands out, that’s how you’ll remember it for the years to come.
2. Learn from context
Context is key to language learning, especially to memorizing words and phrases. Context allows to understand phrases we didn’t know before, but also to memorize new information more effectively.
It’s not easy to remember isolated facts. Context helps us to chunk new information in a meaningful way.
Next time you’re learning new vocabulary, don’t rely on single words, but combine them into chunks. Recognize new information in these contextual chunks, and build a story around your words. You’ll instantly see a difference in your ability to remember these new expressions.
3. Connect knowledge with emotions
Nothing helps to memorize new information like emotions. Research shows that emotions can double the amount of information you can remember.
By relating facts to emotions and imagination you’ll remember them easily. It pays to be genuinely interested in what you’re learning. Be excited and passionate about the new language. When facing new vocabulary, names, or concepts, try to reflect on how pleasant they seem to you.
Put your skills into action and talk to people in this language. Browsing boring grammar books will only make your brain reject the new information.
4. Make analogies and associations
Memory is closely connected to the way in which you learn. It’s less about what takes place in the time between you learn a new fact and when you try to recall it.
That’s why learning the right way the first time round can make a huge difference in how much you’ll be able to recall later.
To boost your memory, you need to make connections between old and new ideas. When learning a new word or concept, connect it to other words and information from your imagination and experience. Analogy and metaphor are both excellent to connect new and old knowledge.
Use your past learning to create pathways towards memorizing new information.
5. Visualize new knowledge
Next time you encounter a new word or phrase, try to visualize it and associate it with your imagery rather than simply translating it to your native language in hope that you’ll remember its meaning.
Create your memory palace. This is called the method of loci, and it was invented over 2000 years ago. Your memory palace should be a place you know and can easily visualize. Then populate that imagined space with information you’d like to remember.
Use these 5 memory improvement techniques to boost your language skills and memorize new information like never before.
Arabic, which is the native tongue of more than 200 million people worldwide, ranks 6th among the major languages of the world. Arabic is the official language of Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, and Yemen as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations. In addition, it is widely spoken in countries such as Somalia and is the language of the holy writings of Muslims throughout the world.